Note that this is EXPERIMENTAL code.

Module Contents

class toil.lib.objects.InnerClass(inner_class)[source]

Note that this is EXPERIMENTAL code.

A nested class (the inner class) decorated with this will have an additional attribute called ‘outer’ referencing the instance of the nesting class (the outer class) that was used to create the inner class. The outer instance does not need to be passed to the inner class’s constructor, it will be set magically. Shamelessly stolen from

with names made more descriptive (I hope) and added caching of the BoundInner classes.

Caveat: Within the inner class, self.__class__ will not be the inner class but a dynamically created subclass thereof. It’s name will be the same as that of the inner class, but its __module__ will be different. There will be one such dynamic subclass per inner class and instance of outer class, if that outer class instance created any instances of inner the class.

>>> class Outer(object):
...     def new_inner(self):
...         # self is an instance of the outer class
...         inner = self.Inner()
...         # the inner instance's 'outer' attribute is set to the outer instance
...         assert inner.outer is self
...         return inner
...     @InnerClass
...     class Inner(object):
...         def get_outer(self):
...             return self.outer
...         @classmethod
...         def new_inner(cls):
...             return cls()
>>> o = Outer()
>>> i = o.new_inner()
>>> i 
<toil.lib.objects.Inner...> bound to <toil.lib.objects.Outer object at ...>
>>> i.get_outer() 
<toil.lib.objects.Outer object at ...>

Now with inheritance for both inner and outer:

>>> class DerivedOuter(Outer):
...     def new_inner(self):
...         return self.DerivedInner()
...     @InnerClass
...     class DerivedInner(Outer.Inner):
...         def get_outer(self):
...             assert super( DerivedOuter.DerivedInner, self ).get_outer() == self.outer
...             return self.outer
>>> derived_outer = DerivedOuter()
>>> derived_inner = derived_outer.new_inner()
>>> derived_inner 
<toil.lib.objects...> bound to <toil.lib.objects.DerivedOuter object at ...>
>>> derived_inner.get_outer() 
<toil.lib.objects.DerivedOuter object at ...>

Test a static references: >>> Outer.Inner # doctest: +ELLIPSIS <class ‘toil.lib.objects…Inner’> >>> DerivedOuter.Inner # doctest: +ELLIPSIS <class ‘toil.lib.objects…Inner’> >>> DerivedOuter.DerivedInner #doctest: +ELLIPSIS <class ‘toil.lib.objects…DerivedInner’>

Can’t decorate top-level classes. Unfortunately, this is detected when the instance is created, not when the class is defined. >>> @InnerClass … class Foo(object): … pass >>> Foo() Traceback (most recent call last): … RuntimeError: Inner classes must be nested in another class.

All inner instances should refer to a single outer instance: >>> o = Outer() >>> o.new_inner().outer == o == o.new_inner().outer True

All inner instances should be of the same class … >>> o.new_inner().__class__ == o.new_inner().__class__ True

… but that class isn’t the inner class … >>> o.new_inner().__class__ != Outer.Inner True

… but a subclass of the inner class. >>> isinstance( o.new_inner(), Outer.Inner ) True

Static and class methods, e.g. should work, too

>>> o.Inner.new_inner().outer == o
__get__(instance, owner)[source]